Ovarian cancer accounts for a significant burden of healthcare costs worldwide. Therapy of this disease consists of a combined surgical and chemotherapeutic approach. Remarkable advances in chemotherapy have been made with the introduction of new agents such as paclitaxel. Based on positive clinical data from randomized trials, numerous cost studies have been undertaken to analyze the cost–effectiveness of paclitaxel. Reviewing all the available cost studies, the authors conclude that paclitaxel plus cisplatin treatment is cost effective. Paclitaxel demonstrated survival and utility gains in combination with cisplatin as first-line treatment in patients with Stage II–IV ovarian cancer compared with cyclophosphamide and cisplatin. Incremental costs of US$6600–22,000 per life year gained are within an accepted range for new treatments.