Trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often experience psychosocial problems. This article reviews interpersonal factors such as social support, social acknowledgment, and interpersonal impairment that are relevant to the development and maintenance of PTSD. Furthermore, it considers the possible impact of social cognition on PTSD. The capacity to empathize (empathy) and the existence of an individual “theory of mind” are fundamental to human social interaction. We raise the question of whether traumatic experiences may lead to changes in the social cognition of traumatized individuals. The possible effects of perceived social exclusion as a maintenance factor for PTSD are also discussed.