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Concentrations and specific loads of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge


Kupper, T; de Alencastro, L F; Gatsigazi, R; Furrer, R; Grandjean, D; Tarradellas, J (2008). Concentrations and specific loads of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge. Chemosphere, 71(6):1173-1180.

Abstract

Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. The present study focuses on two classes of brominated flame retardants: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE28, BDE47, BDE49, BDE66, BDE85, BDE99, BDE100, BDE119, BDE138, BDE153, BDE154, BDE183, BDE209) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) detected in sewage sludge collected from a monitoring network in Switzerland. Mean concentrations (n = 16 wastewater treatment plants) were 310, 149, 95 and 17 μg per kg dry matter for decaBDE, HBCD, penta- and octaBDE, respectively. These numbers correspond well with other studies from European countries. DecaBDE, HBCD, penta- and octaBDE showed average specific loads (load per connected inhabitant per year) in sludge of 6.1, 3.3, 2.0 and 0.3 mg cap−1 yr−1, respectively. This is in line with consumption and storage of the compounds in the environment and the anthroposphere. Discrepancies observed for octaBDE and HBCD can be explained by the release from materials where these compounds are incorporated in and/or their degradation during anaerobic sludge treatment. Loads from different types of monitoring sites showed that brominated flame retardants ending up in sewage sludge originate mainly from surface runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater.

Abstract

Many substances related to human activities end up in wastewater and accumulate in sewage sludge. The present study focuses on two classes of brominated flame retardants: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE28, BDE47, BDE49, BDE66, BDE85, BDE99, BDE100, BDE119, BDE138, BDE153, BDE154, BDE183, BDE209) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) detected in sewage sludge collected from a monitoring network in Switzerland. Mean concentrations (n = 16 wastewater treatment plants) were 310, 149, 95 and 17 μg per kg dry matter for decaBDE, HBCD, penta- and octaBDE, respectively. These numbers correspond well with other studies from European countries. DecaBDE, HBCD, penta- and octaBDE showed average specific loads (load per connected inhabitant per year) in sludge of 6.1, 3.3, 2.0 and 0.3 mg cap−1 yr−1, respectively. This is in line with consumption and storage of the compounds in the environment and the anthroposphere. Discrepancies observed for octaBDE and HBCD can be explained by the release from materials where these compounds are incorporated in and/or their degradation during anaerobic sludge treatment. Loads from different types of monitoring sites showed that brominated flame retardants ending up in sewage sludge originate mainly from surface runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Mathematics
Dewey Decimal Classification:510 Mathematics
Uncontrolled Keywords:Sources; Wastewater treatment plant; Polybrominated diphenyl ethers; Hexabromocyclododecane; Flux
Language:English
Date:April 2008
Deposited On:09 Nov 2009 00:51
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:23
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0045-6535
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.10.019

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