Dispersal propensity, reflecting one of the most decisive mammalian life history traits, has been suggested to vary heritably and to locally adapt to prevailing dispersal conditions in wild house mouse populations. Because individual dispersal propensity highly significantly covaries with the developmental timing of the onset of agonistic interactions between littermate brothers, we used agonistic onset as an endophenotype to explore the potential genetic basis of dispersal-related behavioral variation in male house mice. We found significant covariation of microsatellite marker compositions with the probability of fraternal pairs to exhibit agonistic relationships before the age of 2 months. In particular, the presence of two alleles associated with a serotonin transporter protein gene (Slc6a4) and a testosterone dehydrogenase gene (Cyp3a11), respectively, strongly covaried with the probability of early agonistic onset. These results are congruent with recent findings of microsatellite length polymorphisms marking regulatory variation of gene expression that is relevant for social behavior, including dispersal propensity development, in other mammals. Genetic variability for ontogenetic timing of agonistic onset would be in agreement with genotypic differentiation of the dispersive behavioral syndrome in natural populations that could lead to local adaptation.