Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) as well as those with recurrent anaplastic glioma (AG) and GBM. It has become common practice to re-expose patients to TMZ who had been previously treated with TMZ, or to switch patients to alternative dosing regimens of TMZ when there are signs of relapse or progress on standard TMZ therapeutic regimens. To date, however, there is a scarcity of data on the efficacy of this therapeutic strategy, currently referred to as TMZ rechallenge. We have conducted a retrospective review of patients with recurrent glioma rechallenged with TMZ. Patients experiencing progressive disease (PD) during TMZ therapy who were rechallenged with alternative TMZ regimens and patients rechallenged after stable disease in a TMZ-free interval were evaluated separately. A total of 90 rechallenges were identified in 80 patients. The progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6) was 48% in patients with AG (12/25) and 27.7% in those with GBM (14/47). The PFS-6 was 16.7% in AG and 26.3% in GBM for patients switched during TMZ and 57.9 and 28.6% in patients rechallenged after a TMZ-free interval of at least 8 weeks. Relevant hematological toxicity (NCI-CTC grade 3-5) was observed in 22 of 90 rechallenges, and relevant non-hematological in ten of 90 rechallenges. Temozolomide was well tolerated and generated promising PFS-6 in patients who had previously failed TMZ, regardless if they progressed during TMZ treatment, or if they were rechallenged after a TMZ-free interval. These results suggest that the TMZ rechallenge strategy warrants further investigation in a prospective randomized trial.