Heart valve replacement represents the most common surgical therapy for end-stage valvular heart diseases. A major drawback all contemporary heart valve replacements have in common is the lack of growth, repair, and remodeling capabilities. To overcome these limitations, the emerging field of tissue engineering is focusing on the in vitro generation of functional, living heart valve replacements. The basic approach uses starter matrices of either decellularized xenogeneic or biopolymeric materials configured in the shape of the heart valve and subsequent cell seeding. Moreover, in vitro strategies using mechanical loading in bioreactor systems have been developed to improve tissue maturation. This chapter gives a short overview of the current concepts and provides detailed methods for in vitro heart valve tissue engineering.