Our knowledge about molecular mechanisms underlying axon guidance along the antero-posterior axis in contrast to the dorso-ventral axis of the developing nervous system is very limited. During the past two years in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that morphogens have a role in longitudinal axon guidance. Morphogens are secreted proteins that act in a concentration-dependent manner on susceptible groups of precursor cells and induce their differentiation to a specific cell fate. Thus, gradients of morphogens are responsible for the appropriate patterning of the nervous system during early phases of neural development. Therefore, it was surprising to find that gradients of two of these morphogens, Wnt4 and Shh, can be re-used for longitudinal axon guidance during later stages of nervous system development.