Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Evolutionary relationships in Ephedra (Gnetales), with implications for seed plant phylogeny


Rydin, C; Korall, P (2009). Evolutionary relationships in Ephedra (Gnetales), with implications for seed plant phylogeny. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 170(8):1031-1043.

Abstract

Evolutionary relationships in Ephedra are difficult to resolve, mainly because there are few informative characters in investigated loci and long distances to outgroups. We address these problems by using a large data set that includes information from seven plastid and nuclear loci and 204 vascular plants. The deepest divergences in Ephedra are weakly supported and differ by analytical method, but they indicate a basal grade of species distributed in the Mediterranean area. New World species are monophyletic, with a South American clade possibly nested within a North American clade. A mainly Asian clade comprises several well‐supported subgroups, of which some are endemic to restricted geographic regions in East or Central Asia; others have a broad distribution that may extend into Europe (E. distachya, E. major) and/or Africa (E. pachyclada–E. somalensis). Ephedra laristanica and E. somalensis are nested within other species, whereas the recognition of E. milleri as a separate species is supported. Our results provide another example of how exceptionally difficult it is to disentangle the early divergences of seed plants. Bayesian analysis strongly supports the “gnetifer” hypothesis, a result rarely found in the literature, but it conflicts with our results from only chloroplast data (“gne‐cup”) and with results of most maximum parsimony analyses (“Gnetales sister”).

Abstract

Evolutionary relationships in Ephedra are difficult to resolve, mainly because there are few informative characters in investigated loci and long distances to outgroups. We address these problems by using a large data set that includes information from seven plastid and nuclear loci and 204 vascular plants. The deepest divergences in Ephedra are weakly supported and differ by analytical method, but they indicate a basal grade of species distributed in the Mediterranean area. New World species are monophyletic, with a South American clade possibly nested within a North American clade. A mainly Asian clade comprises several well‐supported subgroups, of which some are endemic to restricted geographic regions in East or Central Asia; others have a broad distribution that may extend into Europe (E. distachya, E. major) and/or Africa (E. pachyclada–E. somalensis). Ephedra laristanica and E. somalensis are nested within other species, whereas the recognition of E. milleri as a separate species is supported. Our results provide another example of how exceptionally difficult it is to disentangle the early divergences of seed plants. Bayesian analysis strongly supports the “gnetifer” hypothesis, a result rarely found in the literature, but it conflicts with our results from only chloroplast data (“gne‐cup”) and with results of most maximum parsimony analyses (“Gnetales sister”).

Statistics

Citations

28 citations in Web of Science®
32 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

260 downloads since deposited on 17 Jan 2010
34 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Language:English
Date:2009
Deposited On:17 Jan 2010 19:22
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:37
Publisher:University of Chicago Press
ISSN:1058-5893
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1086/605116

Download

Download PDF  'Evolutionary relationships in Ephedra (Gnetales), with implications for seed plant phylogeny'.
Preview
Filetype: PDF
Size: 1MB
View at publisher