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Functional living trileaflet heart valves grown in vitro


Hoerstrup, S P; Sodian, R; Daebritz, S; Wang, J; Bacha, E A; Martin, D P; Moran, A M; Guleserian, K J; Sperling, J S; Kaushal, S; Vacanti, J P; Schoen, F J; Mayer, J E (2000). Functional living trileaflet heart valves grown in vitro. Circulation, 102(19 Suppl 3):III44-III49.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Previous tissue engineering approaches to create heart valves have been limited by the structural immaturity and mechanical properties of the valve constructs. This study used an in vitro pulse duplicator system to provide a biomimetic environment during tissue formation to yield more mature implantable heart valves derived from autologous tissue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Trileaflet heart valves were fabricated from novel bioabsorbable polymers and sequentially seeded with autologous ovine myofibroblasts and endothelial cells. The constructs were grown for 14 days in a pulse duplicator in vitro system under gradually increasing flow and pressure conditions. By use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the native pulmonary leaflets were resected, and the valve constructs were implanted into 6 lambs (weight 19+/-2.8 kg). All animals had uneventful postoperative courses, and the valves were explanted at 1 day and at 4, 6, 8, 16, and 20 weeks. Echocardiography demonstrated mobile functioning leaflets without stenosis, thrombus, or aneurysm up to 20 weeks. Histology (16 and 20 weeks) showed uniform layered cuspal tissue with endothelium. Environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed a confluent smooth valvular surface. Mechanical properties were comparable to those of native tissue at 20 weeks. Complete degradation of the polymers occurred by 8 weeks. Extracellular matrix content (collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and elastin) and DNA content increased to levels of native tissue and higher at 20 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates in vitro generation of implantable complete living heart valves based on a biomimetic flow culture system. These autologous tissue-engineered valves functioned up to 5 months and resembled normal heart valves in microstructure, mechanical properties, and extracellular matrix formation.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Previous tissue engineering approaches to create heart valves have been limited by the structural immaturity and mechanical properties of the valve constructs. This study used an in vitro pulse duplicator system to provide a biomimetic environment during tissue formation to yield more mature implantable heart valves derived from autologous tissue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Trileaflet heart valves were fabricated from novel bioabsorbable polymers and sequentially seeded with autologous ovine myofibroblasts and endothelial cells. The constructs were grown for 14 days in a pulse duplicator in vitro system under gradually increasing flow and pressure conditions. By use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the native pulmonary leaflets were resected, and the valve constructs were implanted into 6 lambs (weight 19+/-2.8 kg). All animals had uneventful postoperative courses, and the valves were explanted at 1 day and at 4, 6, 8, 16, and 20 weeks. Echocardiography demonstrated mobile functioning leaflets without stenosis, thrombus, or aneurysm up to 20 weeks. Histology (16 and 20 weeks) showed uniform layered cuspal tissue with endothelium. Environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed a confluent smooth valvular surface. Mechanical properties were comparable to those of native tissue at 20 weeks. Complete degradation of the polymers occurred by 8 weeks. Extracellular matrix content (collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and elastin) and DNA content increased to levels of native tissue and higher at 20 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates in vitro generation of implantable complete living heart valves based on a biomimetic flow culture system. These autologous tissue-engineered valves functioned up to 5 months and resembled normal heart valves in microstructure, mechanical properties, and extracellular matrix formation.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Division of Surgical Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2000
Deposited On:05 Jan 2010 11:58
Last Modified:06 Dec 2017 22:35
Publisher:Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins
ISSN:0009-7322
Free access at:Official URL. An embargo period may apply.
Official URL:http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/102/suppl_3/III-44
PubMed ID:11082361

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