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GNRH1 mutations in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism


Chan, Y M; de Guillebon, A; Lang-Muritano, M; Plummer, L; Cerrato, F; Tsiaras, S; Gaspert, A; Lavoie, H B; Wu, C H; Crowley, W F; Amory, J K; Pitteloud, N; Seminara, S B (2009). GNRH1 mutations in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 106(28):11703-11708.

Abstract

Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a condition characterized by failure to undergo puberty in the setting of low sex steroids and low gonadotropins. IHH is due to abnormal secretion or action of the master reproductive hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Several genes have been found to be mutated in patients with IHH, yet to date no mutations have been identified in the most obvious candidate gene, GNRH1 itself, which encodes the preprohormone that is ultimately processed to produce GnRH. We screened DNA from 310 patients with normosmic IHH (nIHH) and 192 healthy control subjects for sequence changes in GNRH1. In 1 patient with severe congenital nIHH (with micropenis, bilateral cryptorchidism, and absent puberty), a homozygous frameshift mutation that is predicted to disrupt the 3 C-terminal amino acids of the GnRH decapeptide and to produce a premature stop codon was identified. Heterozygous variants not seen in controls were identified in 4 patients with nIHH: 1 nonsynonymous missense mutation in the eighth amino acid of the GnRH decapeptide, 1 nonsense mutation that causes premature termination within the GnRH-associated peptide (GAP), which lies C-terminal to the GnRH decapeptide within the GnRH precursor, and 2 sequence variants that cause nonsynonymous amino-acid substitutions in the signal peptide and in GnRH-associated peptide. Our results establish mutations in GNRH1 as a genetic cause of nIHH.

Abstract

Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a condition characterized by failure to undergo puberty in the setting of low sex steroids and low gonadotropins. IHH is due to abnormal secretion or action of the master reproductive hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Several genes have been found to be mutated in patients with IHH, yet to date no mutations have been identified in the most obvious candidate gene, GNRH1 itself, which encodes the preprohormone that is ultimately processed to produce GnRH. We screened DNA from 310 patients with normosmic IHH (nIHH) and 192 healthy control subjects for sequence changes in GNRH1. In 1 patient with severe congenital nIHH (with micropenis, bilateral cryptorchidism, and absent puberty), a homozygous frameshift mutation that is predicted to disrupt the 3 C-terminal amino acids of the GnRH decapeptide and to produce a premature stop codon was identified. Heterozygous variants not seen in controls were identified in 4 patients with nIHH: 1 nonsynonymous missense mutation in the eighth amino acid of the GnRH decapeptide, 1 nonsense mutation that causes premature termination within the GnRH-associated peptide (GAP), which lies C-terminal to the GnRH decapeptide within the GnRH precursor, and 2 sequence variants that cause nonsynonymous amino-acid substitutions in the signal peptide and in GnRH-associated peptide. Our results establish mutations in GNRH1 as a genetic cause of nIHH.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:14 July 2009
Deposited On:26 Jan 2010 10:43
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:45
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
ISSN:0027-8424
Additional Information:Copyright: National Academy of Sciences USA
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0903449106
PubMed ID:19567835

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