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Human CMV infection of porcine endothelial cells increases adhesion receptor expression and human leukocyte recruitment


Ghielmetti, M; Millard, A L; Haeberli, L; Bossart, W; Seebach, J D; Schneider, M K J; Mueller, N J (2009). Human CMV infection of porcine endothelial cells increases adhesion receptor expression and human leukocyte recruitment. Transplantation, 87(12):1792-1800.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Potential xenozoonosis is a concern for the clinical application of xenotransplantation. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the most important pathogens in allotransplantation, but the consequences of HCMV cross-species infection of porcine xenografts are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of HCMV infection of porcine endothelial cells (pEC) on cell surface molecule expression and human leukocyte recruitment. METHODS: Infection of pEC inoculated with untreated, UV-inactivated, or heparin-treated HCMV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 was analyzed by immediate early (IE) antigen expression. Cell surface receptor expression was studied by flow cytometry on pEC bulk cultures and differentially on IE-positive and -negative pEC. Adhesion of human leukocytes was tested on pEC monolayers. pEC supernatants were analyzed for cytokine content, chemotactic activity, and stimulatory effect on resting secondary pEC cultures. RESULTS: At day 2 postinfection, IE staining was evident in 10% to 20% of HCMV-infected cells. Cell-surface expression of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was upregulated in both IE-negative and -positive fractions of HCMV-infected pEC. In contrast, porcine major histocompatibility complex class I expression was upregulated in IE-negative cells, but reduced in IE-positive cells. The receptor alterations in the IE-negative fraction were mediated by pEC-derived soluble factors. The increased adhesion receptor expression was paralleled by enhanced human leukocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to infected pEC cultures. Pretreatment of HCMV with heparin, but not UV-inactivation, prevented adhesion-receptor modulation and reversed the increased adhesion and chemotaxis. CONCLUSIONS: After pig-to-human solid organ transplantation HCMV may infect and activate the porcine endothelium, rendering the xenograft more susceptible to human leukocyte recruitment and rejection.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Potential xenozoonosis is a concern for the clinical application of xenotransplantation. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the most important pathogens in allotransplantation, but the consequences of HCMV cross-species infection of porcine xenografts are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of HCMV infection of porcine endothelial cells (pEC) on cell surface molecule expression and human leukocyte recruitment. METHODS: Infection of pEC inoculated with untreated, UV-inactivated, or heparin-treated HCMV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 was analyzed by immediate early (IE) antigen expression. Cell surface receptor expression was studied by flow cytometry on pEC bulk cultures and differentially on IE-positive and -negative pEC. Adhesion of human leukocytes was tested on pEC monolayers. pEC supernatants were analyzed for cytokine content, chemotactic activity, and stimulatory effect on resting secondary pEC cultures. RESULTS: At day 2 postinfection, IE staining was evident in 10% to 20% of HCMV-infected cells. Cell-surface expression of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was upregulated in both IE-negative and -positive fractions of HCMV-infected pEC. In contrast, porcine major histocompatibility complex class I expression was upregulated in IE-negative cells, but reduced in IE-positive cells. The receptor alterations in the IE-negative fraction were mediated by pEC-derived soluble factors. The increased adhesion receptor expression was paralleled by enhanced human leukocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to infected pEC cultures. Pretreatment of HCMV with heparin, but not UV-inactivation, prevented adhesion-receptor modulation and reversed the increased adhesion and chemotaxis. CONCLUSIONS: After pig-to-human solid organ transplantation HCMV may infect and activate the porcine endothelium, rendering the xenograft more susceptible to human leukocyte recruitment and rejection.

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14 citations in Scopus®
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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Virology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2009
Deposited On:19 Jan 2010 12:50
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:45
Publisher:Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins
ISSN:0041-1337
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e3181a75a41
PubMed ID:19543055

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