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Actinomyces in chronic granulomatous disease: an emerging and unanticipated pathogen


Reichenbach, J; Lopatin, U; Mahlaoui, N; Beovic, B; Siler, U; Zbinden, R; Seger, R A; Galmiche, L; Brousse, N; Kayal, S; Güngör, T; Blanche, S; Holland, S M (2009). Actinomyces in chronic granulomatous disease: an emerging and unanticipated pathogen. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 49(11):1703-1710.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system that causes defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life-threatening infections, mostly by catalase-producing organisms. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, chronic infections with Actinomyces species in 10 patients with CGD. Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous condition that commonly manifests as cervicofacial, pulmonary, or abdominal disease, caused by slowly progressive infection with oral and gastrointestinal commensal Actinomyces species. Treatment of actinomycosis is usually simple in immunocompetent individuals, requiring long-term, high-dose intravenous penicillin, but is more complicated in those with CGD because of delayed diagnosis and an increased risk of chronic invasive or debilitating disease. METHODS: Actinomyces was identified by culture, staining, 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction, and/or a complement fixation test in 10 patients with CGD. RESULTS: All 10 patients presented with a history of fever and elevated inflammatory signs without evident focus. Diagnosis was delayed and clinical course severe and protracted despite high-dose intravenous antibiotic therapy and/or surgery. These results suggest an unrecognized and unanticipated susceptibility to weakly pathogenic Actinomyces species in patients with CGD because these are catalase-negative organisms previously thought to be nonpathogenic in CGD. CONCLUSIONS: Actinomycosis should be vigorously sought and promptly treated in patients with CGD presenting with uncommon and prolonged clinical signs of infection. Actinomycosis is a catalase-negative infection important to consider in CGD.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system that causes defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life-threatening infections, mostly by catalase-producing organisms. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, chronic infections with Actinomyces species in 10 patients with CGD. Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous condition that commonly manifests as cervicofacial, pulmonary, or abdominal disease, caused by slowly progressive infection with oral and gastrointestinal commensal Actinomyces species. Treatment of actinomycosis is usually simple in immunocompetent individuals, requiring long-term, high-dose intravenous penicillin, but is more complicated in those with CGD because of delayed diagnosis and an increased risk of chronic invasive or debilitating disease. METHODS: Actinomyces was identified by culture, staining, 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction, and/or a complement fixation test in 10 patients with CGD. RESULTS: All 10 patients presented with a history of fever and elevated inflammatory signs without evident focus. Diagnosis was delayed and clinical course severe and protracted despite high-dose intravenous antibiotic therapy and/or surgery. These results suggest an unrecognized and unanticipated susceptibility to weakly pathogenic Actinomyces species in patients with CGD because these are catalase-negative organisms previously thought to be nonpathogenic in CGD. CONCLUSIONS: Actinomycosis should be vigorously sought and promptly treated in patients with CGD presenting with uncommon and prolonged clinical signs of infection. Actinomycosis is a catalase-negative infection important to consider in CGD.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Medical Microbiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Date:2009
Deposited On:29 Jan 2010 07:15
Last Modified:06 Dec 2017 23:25
Publisher:University of Chicago Press
ISSN:1058-4838
Additional Information:© 2009 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1086/647945
PubMed ID:19874205

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