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Explant-derived human dental pulp stem cells enhance differentiation and proliferation potentials


Spath, L; Rotilio, V; Alessandrini, M; Gambara, G; De Angelis, L; Mancini, M; Mitsiadis, T A; Vivarelli, E; Naro, F; Filippini, A; Papaccio, G (2010). Explant-derived human dental pulp stem cells enhance differentiation and proliferation potentials. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 14(6b):1634-1644.

Abstract

Numerous stem cell niches are present in the different tissues and organs of the adult human body. Among these tissues, dental pulp, entrapped within the 'sealed niche' of the pulp chamber, is an extremely rich site for collecting stem cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the isolation of human dental pulp stem cells by the explants culture method (hD-DPSCs) allows the recovery of a population of dental mesenchymal stem cells that exhibit an elevated proliferation potential. Moreover, we highlight that hD-DPSCs are not only capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and chondrocytes but are also able to switch their genetic programme when co-cultured with murine myoblasts. High levels of MyoD expression were detected, indicating that muscle-specific genes in dental pulp cells can be turned on through myogenic fusion, confirming thus their multipotency. A perivascular niche may be the potential source of hD-DPSCs, as suggested by the consistent Ca(2+) release from these cells in response to endothelin-1 (ET-1) treatment, which is also able to significantly increase cell proliferation. Moreover, response to ET-1 has been found to be superior in hD-DPSCs than in DPSCs, probably due to the isolation method that promotes release of stem/progenitor cells from perivascular structures. The ability to isolate, expand and direct the differentiation of hD-DPSCs into several lineages, mainly towards myogenesis, offers an opportunity for the study of events associated with cell commitment and differentiation. Therefore, hD-DPSCs display enhanced differentiation abilities when compared to DPSCs, and this might be of relevance for their use in therapy.

Abstract

Numerous stem cell niches are present in the different tissues and organs of the adult human body. Among these tissues, dental pulp, entrapped within the 'sealed niche' of the pulp chamber, is an extremely rich site for collecting stem cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the isolation of human dental pulp stem cells by the explants culture method (hD-DPSCs) allows the recovery of a population of dental mesenchymal stem cells that exhibit an elevated proliferation potential. Moreover, we highlight that hD-DPSCs are not only capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and chondrocytes but are also able to switch their genetic programme when co-cultured with murine myoblasts. High levels of MyoD expression were detected, indicating that muscle-specific genes in dental pulp cells can be turned on through myogenic fusion, confirming thus their multipotency. A perivascular niche may be the potential source of hD-DPSCs, as suggested by the consistent Ca(2+) release from these cells in response to endothelin-1 (ET-1) treatment, which is also able to significantly increase cell proliferation. Moreover, response to ET-1 has been found to be superior in hD-DPSCs than in DPSCs, probably due to the isolation method that promotes release of stem/progenitor cells from perivascular structures. The ability to isolate, expand and direct the differentiation of hD-DPSCs into several lineages, mainly towards myogenesis, offers an opportunity for the study of events associated with cell commitment and differentiation. Therefore, hD-DPSCs display enhanced differentiation abilities when compared to DPSCs, and this might be of relevance for their use in therapy.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Institute of Oral Biology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2010
Deposited On:01 Feb 2010 16:46
Last Modified:03 Aug 2017 15:12
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:1582-1838
Additional Information:The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00848.x
PubMed ID:19602052

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