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Raffinose in chloroplasts is synthesized in the cytosol and transported across the chloroplast envelope


Schneider, T; Keller, F (2009). Raffinose in chloroplasts is synthesized in the cytosol and transported across the chloroplast envelope. Plant & Cell Physiology, 50(12):2174-2182.

Abstract

In chloroplasts, several water-soluble carbohydrates have been suggested to act as stress protectants. The trisaccharide raffinose (alpha-1,6-galactosyl sucrose) is such a carbohydrate but has received little attention. We here demonstrate by compartmentation analysis of leaf mesophyll protoplasts that raffinose is clearly (to about 20%) present in chloroplasts of cold-treated common bugle (Ajuga reptans L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.] plants. The two dedicated enzymes needed for raffinose synthesis, galactinol synthase and raffinose synthase, were found to be extra-chloroplastic (probably cytosolic) in location, suggesting that the chloroplast envelope contains a raffinose transporter. Uptake experiments with isolated Ajuga and Arabidopsis chloroplasts clearly demonstrated that raffinose is indeed transported across the chloroplast envelope by a raffinose transporter, probably actively. Raffinose uptake into Ajuga chloroplasts was a saturable process with apparent K(m) and v(max) values of 27.8 mM and 3.3 micromol mg(-1) Chl min(-1), respectively.

Abstract

In chloroplasts, several water-soluble carbohydrates have been suggested to act as stress protectants. The trisaccharide raffinose (alpha-1,6-galactosyl sucrose) is such a carbohydrate but has received little attention. We here demonstrate by compartmentation analysis of leaf mesophyll protoplasts that raffinose is clearly (to about 20%) present in chloroplasts of cold-treated common bugle (Ajuga reptans L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.] plants. The two dedicated enzymes needed for raffinose synthesis, galactinol synthase and raffinose synthase, were found to be extra-chloroplastic (probably cytosolic) in location, suggesting that the chloroplast envelope contains a raffinose transporter. Uptake experiments with isolated Ajuga and Arabidopsis chloroplasts clearly demonstrated that raffinose is indeed transported across the chloroplast envelope by a raffinose transporter, probably actively. Raffinose uptake into Ajuga chloroplasts was a saturable process with apparent K(m) and v(max) values of 27.8 mM and 3.3 micromol mg(-1) Chl min(-1), respectively.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Language:English
Date:2009
Deposited On:01 Feb 2010 16:29
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 13:48
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0032-0781
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcp151
PubMed ID:19880397

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