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Outcome of sinonasal melanoma: Clinical experience and review of the literature


Roth, T N; Gengler, C; Huber, G F; Holzmann, D (2010). Outcome of sinonasal melanoma: Clinical experience and review of the literature. Head and Neck, 32(10):1385-1392.

Abstract

BACKGROUND.: Primary sinonasal malignant melanoma (SNMM) is a rare clinical entity. There is neither a classification nor a staging system nor an evidence-based treatment concept established. Our objective was to find potential risk factors predicting the outcome. METHODS.: Twenty-five patients with histologically confirmed SNMM were consecutively included and retrospectively analyzed. Staging methods were nasal endoscopy, CT, MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Patients were selected for a curative or palliative concept. All patients had postoperative follow-up with control-MRI at 3 and 6 months. Restaging was performed when local recurrence occurred. RESULTS.: Nineteen patients underwent primary surgery with curative intention; in 16 cases with tumor free margins. Thirteen patients (68%) had transnasal endoscopic surgery, 4 lateral rhinotomy, and 2 transfacial approach with orbital exenteration. Six patients (32%) had palliative therapy and 7 patients (37%) had adjuvant radiotherapy. Despite radical operations, 6 patients (37%) showed local recurrence and 8 patients (50%) developed distant metastasis. In 2 patients with incomplete surgery, regional metastasis was noted. The median disease-free interval was 18 months, and the median overall survival rate was 23 months. CONCLUSION.: SNMMs of the ethmoid and maxillary sinuses have a worse prognosis than other localizations in the nasal cavity; infiltration into the skull base, orbit, or facial soft tissue correlates with a very poor outcome corresponding to the palliative situations. Furthermore, local recurrence insinuates aggressive disease with short survival rate. A main difference from its cutaneous counterpart seems to be a primary tendency to hematogenic spread. Further research is needed to confirm these findings. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010.

Abstract

BACKGROUND.: Primary sinonasal malignant melanoma (SNMM) is a rare clinical entity. There is neither a classification nor a staging system nor an evidence-based treatment concept established. Our objective was to find potential risk factors predicting the outcome. METHODS.: Twenty-five patients with histologically confirmed SNMM were consecutively included and retrospectively analyzed. Staging methods were nasal endoscopy, CT, MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Patients were selected for a curative or palliative concept. All patients had postoperative follow-up with control-MRI at 3 and 6 months. Restaging was performed when local recurrence occurred. RESULTS.: Nineteen patients underwent primary surgery with curative intention; in 16 cases with tumor free margins. Thirteen patients (68%) had transnasal endoscopic surgery, 4 lateral rhinotomy, and 2 transfacial approach with orbital exenteration. Six patients (32%) had palliative therapy and 7 patients (37%) had adjuvant radiotherapy. Despite radical operations, 6 patients (37%) showed local recurrence and 8 patients (50%) developed distant metastasis. In 2 patients with incomplete surgery, regional metastasis was noted. The median disease-free interval was 18 months, and the median overall survival rate was 23 months. CONCLUSION.: SNMMs of the ethmoid and maxillary sinuses have a worse prognosis than other localizations in the nasal cavity; infiltration into the skull base, orbit, or facial soft tissue correlates with a very poor outcome corresponding to the palliative situations. Furthermore, local recurrence insinuates aggressive disease with short survival rate. A main difference from its cutaneous counterpart seems to be a primary tendency to hematogenic spread. Further research is needed to confirm these findings. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Otorhinolaryngology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:February 2010
Deposited On:21 Apr 2010 13:26
Last Modified:18 Feb 2018 01:14
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1043-3074
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/hed.21340
PubMed ID:20146340

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