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Mismatch repair-dependent processing of methylation damage gives rise to persistent single-stranded gaps in newly replicated DNA


Mojas, N; Lopes, M; Jiricny, J (2007). Mismatch repair-dependent processing of methylation damage gives rise to persistent single-stranded gaps in newly replicated DNA. Genes and Development, 21(24):3342-55.

Abstract

O(6)-Methylguanine ((Me)G) is a highly cytotoxic DNA modification generated by S(N)1-type methylating agents. Despite numerous studies implicating DNA replication, mismatch repair (MMR), and homologous recombination (HR) in (Me)G toxicity, its mode of action has remained elusive. We studied the molecular transactions in the DNA of yeast and mammalian cells treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Although replication fork progression was unaffected in the first cell cycle after treatment, electron microscopic analysis revealed an accumulation of (Me)G- and MMR-dependent single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps in newly replicated DNA. Progression into the second cell cycle required HR, while the following G(2) arrest required the continued presence of (Me)G. Yeast cells overcame this block, while mammalian cells generally failed to recover, and those that did contained multiple sister chromatid exchanges. Notably, the arrest could be abolished by removal of (Me)G after the first S phase. These new data provide compelling support for the hypothesis that MMR attempts to correct (Me)G/C or (Me)G/T mispairs arising during replication. Due to the persistence of (Me)G in the exposed template strand, repair synthesis cannot take place, which leaves single-stranded gaps behind the replication fork. During the subsequent S phase, these gaps cause replication fork collapse and elicit recombination and cell cycle arrest.

Abstract

O(6)-Methylguanine ((Me)G) is a highly cytotoxic DNA modification generated by S(N)1-type methylating agents. Despite numerous studies implicating DNA replication, mismatch repair (MMR), and homologous recombination (HR) in (Me)G toxicity, its mode of action has remained elusive. We studied the molecular transactions in the DNA of yeast and mammalian cells treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Although replication fork progression was unaffected in the first cell cycle after treatment, electron microscopic analysis revealed an accumulation of (Me)G- and MMR-dependent single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps in newly replicated DNA. Progression into the second cell cycle required HR, while the following G(2) arrest required the continued presence of (Me)G. Yeast cells overcame this block, while mammalian cells generally failed to recover, and those that did contained multiple sister chromatid exchanges. Notably, the arrest could be abolished by removal of (Me)G after the first S phase. These new data provide compelling support for the hypothesis that MMR attempts to correct (Me)G/C or (Me)G/T mispairs arising during replication. Due to the persistence of (Me)G in the exposed template strand, repair synthesis cannot take place, which leaves single-stranded gaps behind the replication fork. During the subsequent S phase, these gaps cause replication fork collapse and elicit recombination and cell cycle arrest.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Molecular Cancer Research
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Cancer Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2007
Deposited On:16 Jul 2010 13:14
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:11
Publisher:Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
ISSN:0890-9369
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.455407
PubMed ID:18079180

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