Peterson, Park, and Seligman (2005) developed the Orientations to Happiness (OTH) questionnaire to measure three routes to
happiness: life of pleasure (hedonism), life of engagement (flow) and life of meaning (eudemonia). The questionnaire was translated into
German in several steps (independent translations by five experts, creation of the initial version by committee approach, retranslation,
modification, and final version). Data were collected in paper-pencil (N = 1,152) and Internet samples (N = 4,174). The OTH scales
showed satisfactory internal consistencies (.63 ≤ α ≤ .76) and stability across 6 months (all ≥ .63). The factorial structure of the German
OTH was analyzed (RMSEA ≤ .074 and SRMR ≤ .043 for the 3-factor solution) in both samples. Tucker’s Phi coefficients for factorial
congruence between the two samples were .99. The three scales were positively intercorrelated. The endorsement of the life of pleasure
was higher in younger, unmarried, and nonreligious participants. The life of meaning was more pronounced among the religious participants.
There was a good convergence (all > .49) between homologous scale of the self- and peer-form, and the OTH predicted behavior
in prototypical pleasure, engagement, and meaning situations. Most importantly, high scores in each of the orientations to happiness
corresponded to higher degrees of overall satisfaction with life.