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Perfectionism and the cortisol response to psychosocial stress in men.


Wirtz, P H; Elsenbruch, S; Emini, L; Rüdisüli, K; Groessbauer, S; Ehlert, Ulrike (2007). Perfectionism and the cortisol response to psychosocial stress in men. Psychosomatic medicine, 69(3):249-55.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that perfectionism is an important moderator of the neuroendocrine stress response, with higher perfectionism predicting increased neuroendocrine activation. METHODS: A total of 50 middle-aged men underwent an acute standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). Perfectionism, cognitive appraisal of the stressful situation, trait anxiety, and various personality characteristics were assessed with questionnaires. Salivary cortisol, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine, blood pressure, and heart rate were analyzed before and after stress. Circadian profiles of cortisol secretion during the day and in response to awakening were analyzed to assess basal activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of the neuroendocrine stress response. RESULTS: Perfectionism was significantly associated with area under the total response curve with respect to increase (AUCi) of cortisol (r = 0.322, p = .046), but not with AUCi of norepinephrine (r = -0.217, p = .152) or AUCi of epinephrine (r = 0.116, p = .477). Hence, AUCi of cortisol was the main criterion. As possible predictors, trait anxiety, neuroticism, vital exhaustion, secondary appraisal, depression, and openness were considered. Regression analyses demonstrated that only perfectionism (beta = 0.45, p = .002) and secondary appraisal (beta = 0.50, p = .001) were independent predictors of AUCi of cortisol, the final model explaining 45% of the total variance in cortisol response (R2 = 0.45, "shrunken" R2 [sR2] = 0.38); perfectionism alone accounted for 18% of this variance (deltaR2 = 0.18, sR2 = 0.19). CONCLUSION: The typical cognitions, and presumably the associated emotions, of perfectionists seem to contribute independently to stress-induced bodily responses, including HPA axis activation, in response to psychosocial stress.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that perfectionism is an important moderator of the neuroendocrine stress response, with higher perfectionism predicting increased neuroendocrine activation. METHODS: A total of 50 middle-aged men underwent an acute standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). Perfectionism, cognitive appraisal of the stressful situation, trait anxiety, and various personality characteristics were assessed with questionnaires. Salivary cortisol, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine, blood pressure, and heart rate were analyzed before and after stress. Circadian profiles of cortisol secretion during the day and in response to awakening were analyzed to assess basal activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of the neuroendocrine stress response. RESULTS: Perfectionism was significantly associated with area under the total response curve with respect to increase (AUCi) of cortisol (r = 0.322, p = .046), but not with AUCi of norepinephrine (r = -0.217, p = .152) or AUCi of epinephrine (r = 0.116, p = .477). Hence, AUCi of cortisol was the main criterion. As possible predictors, trait anxiety, neuroticism, vital exhaustion, secondary appraisal, depression, and openness were considered. Regression analyses demonstrated that only perfectionism (beta = 0.45, p = .002) and secondary appraisal (beta = 0.50, p = .001) were independent predictors of AUCi of cortisol, the final model explaining 45% of the total variance in cortisol response (R2 = 0.45, "shrunken" R2 [sR2] = 0.38); perfectionism alone accounted for 18% of this variance (deltaR2 = 0.18, sR2 = 0.19). CONCLUSION: The typical cognitions, and presumably the associated emotions, of perfectionists seem to contribute independently to stress-induced bodily responses, including HPA axis activation, in response to psychosocial stress.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Date:2007
Deposited On:17 Sep 2010 12:16
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:14
Publisher:Lippincott Wiliams & Wilkins
ISSN:0033-3174
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e318042589e
PubMed ID:17420440

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