Morphogen gradients play a fundamental role in organ patterning and organ growth. Unlike their role in patterning, their function in regulating the growth and the size of organs is poorly understood. How and why do morphogen gradients exert their mitogenic effects to generate uniform proliferation in developing organs, and by what means can morphogens impinge on the final size of organs? The decapentaplegic (Dpp) gradient in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc has emerged as a suitable and established system to study organ growth. Here, we review models and recent findings that attempt to address how the Dpp morphogen contributes to uniform proliferation of cells, and how it may regulate the final size of wing discs.