Measurements were taken in the metacarpal and metatarsal bones in 42 calves and 10 dairy cows post-mortem to determine whether there are anatomical differences in bone length. Manual and digital measurements of various bone length parameters were taken. There was a significant difference in the mean length of the condyles of the metacarpal and the metatarsal bones in calves and cows, the lateral condyle being longer than the medial. In all but one metatarsal bone (98.8%), the lateral condyle was longer than the medial. In the metacarpal bones, the lateral condyle was longer in only 52.4% of the bones, in 21.2%, they had the same length and in 27.4% the medial condyle was longer. These intrinsic anatomical differences can help distinguish between the left and right metacarpal and metatarsal bones, for instance, in anatomical and archaeological studies. Knowledge of these differences might be useful for studies on digit function and on the possible predisposition of cattle to claw diseases in the lateral claws of the hind limbs.