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Different but equal: the implausible assumption at the heart of neutral theory


Purves, D W; Turnbull, L A (2010). Different but equal: the implausible assumption at the heart of neutral theory. Journal of Animal Ecology, 79(6):1215 -1225.

Abstract

1. The core assumption of neutral theory is that all individuals in a community have equal fitness regardless of species, and regardless of the species composition of the community. But, real communities consist of species exhibiting large trait differences; hence these differences must be subject to perfect fitness-equalizing trade-offs for neutrality to hold.
2. Here we explain that perfect equalizing trade-offs are extremely unlikely to occur in reality, because equality of fitness among species is destroyed by: (i) any deviation in the functional form of the trade-off away from the one special form that gives equal fitness; (ii) spatial or temporal variation in performance; (iii) random species differences in performance.
3. In the absence of the density-dependent processes stressed by traditional niche-based community ecology, communities featuring small amounts of (i) or (ii) rapidly lose trait variation, becoming dominated by species with similar traits, and exhibit substantially lower species richness compared to the neutral case. Communities featuring random interspecific variation in traits (iii)
lose all but a few fortuitous species.
4. Thus neutrality should be viewed, a priori, as a highly improbable explanation for the long-term co-occurrence of measurably different species within ecological communities. In contrast, coexistence via niche structure and density dependence, is robust to species differences in baseline fitness, and so remains plausible.
5. We conclude that: (i) co-occurring species will typically exhibit substantial differences in baseline
fitness even when (imperfect) equalizing trade-offs have been taken into account; (ii) therefore, communities must be strongly niche structured, otherwise they would lose both trait variation and species richness; (iii) nonetheless, even in strongly niche-structured communities, it is possible that the abundance of species with similar traits are at least partially free to drift.

Abstract

1. The core assumption of neutral theory is that all individuals in a community have equal fitness regardless of species, and regardless of the species composition of the community. But, real communities consist of species exhibiting large trait differences; hence these differences must be subject to perfect fitness-equalizing trade-offs for neutrality to hold.
2. Here we explain that perfect equalizing trade-offs are extremely unlikely to occur in reality, because equality of fitness among species is destroyed by: (i) any deviation in the functional form of the trade-off away from the one special form that gives equal fitness; (ii) spatial or temporal variation in performance; (iii) random species differences in performance.
3. In the absence of the density-dependent processes stressed by traditional niche-based community ecology, communities featuring small amounts of (i) or (ii) rapidly lose trait variation, becoming dominated by species with similar traits, and exhibit substantially lower species richness compared to the neutral case. Communities featuring random interspecific variation in traits (iii)
lose all but a few fortuitous species.
4. Thus neutrality should be viewed, a priori, as a highly improbable explanation for the long-term co-occurrence of measurably different species within ecological communities. In contrast, coexistence via niche structure and density dependence, is robust to species differences in baseline fitness, and so remains plausible.
5. We conclude that: (i) co-occurring species will typically exhibit substantial differences in baseline
fitness even when (imperfect) equalizing trade-offs have been taken into account; (ii) therefore, communities must be strongly niche structured, otherwise they would lose both trait variation and species richness; (iii) nonetheless, even in strongly niche-structured communities, it is possible that the abundance of species with similar traits are at least partially free to drift.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Uncontrolled Keywords:biodiversity, coexistence, community ecology, density dependence, ecological drift, ecosystem function, life-history manifold, null model, trait variation
Language:English
Date:2010
Deposited On:17 Jan 2011 10:47
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:24
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:0021-8790
Additional Information:Author Posting. © The Authors 2010. The full text of this article is published in Journal of Animal Ecology, volume 79, issue 6, pages 1215 - 1225. It is available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2010.01738.x
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2010.01738.x

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