The Chlamydiales is a diverse order of obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that are known to cause a wide range of diseases in terrestrial animals, including humans. Molecular analyses have revealed that these organisms are also associated with epitheliocystis in teleost fish species, highlighting the suspected deep evolutionary origin of members of this bacterial order. However, our knowledge of their fish host range and of the diversity of the bacteria themselves is still very limited. In this study, we provide molecular evidence for a novel member of the Order Chlamydiales in a nonteleost species, the leopard shark Triakis semifasciata. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, this novel organism appears to represent a unique lineage in the Order Chlamydiales despite appearing histologically similar to epitheliocystis-causing organisms in other fish species. A greater understanding of the genetic diversity of marine Chlamydiales will assist our attempts to manage and control epitheliocystis outbreaks and to understand the evolution of this unique obligate intracellular pathogen.