The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is the first choice of treatment in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and is based mainly on inhibition of dopamine transporter (DAT). Nonetheless, the complete cellular effects of MPH are still unknown. We attempted to determine whether MPH influences neurotransmitter levels, synaptic gene expression, and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) lacking DAT. PC12 were treated in a dose-dependent manner with MPH. Gene expression level of synaptotagmin (Syt) 1 and 4, syntaxin 1a (Stx1a), and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Different Neurotransmitter release was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Differences in cell proliferation were evaluated via BrdU incorporation. Treatment with low-dose MPH (1–100 nM) altered intra-/extracellular neurotransmitter levels, down-regulated all investigated genes as well as enhanced cell proliferation significantly. These data point to diverse effects of MPH on cell metabolism independent of inhibiting DAT.