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Genome expansion and gene loss in powdery mildew fungi reveal tradeoffs in extreme parasitism


Abstract

Powdery mildews are phytopathogens whose growth and reproduction are entirely dependent on living plant cells. The molecular basis of this life-style, obligate biotrophy, remains unknown. We present the genome analysis of barley powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Blumeria), as well as a comparison with the analysis of two powdery mildews pathogenic on dicotyledonous plants. These genomes display massive retrotransposon proliferation, genome-size expansion, and gene losses. The missing genes encode enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, probably reflecting their redundancy in an exclusively biotrophic life-style. Among the 248 candidate effectors of pathogenesis identified in the Blumeria genome, very few (less than 10) define a core set conserved in all three mildews, suggesting that most effectors represent species-specific adaptations.

Abstract

Powdery mildews are phytopathogens whose growth and reproduction are entirely dependent on living plant cells. The molecular basis of this life-style, obligate biotrophy, remains unknown. We present the genome analysis of barley powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Blumeria), as well as a comparison with the analysis of two powdery mildews pathogenic on dicotyledonous plants. These genomes display massive retrotransposon proliferation, genome-size expansion, and gene losses. The missing genes encode enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, probably reflecting their redundancy in an exclusively biotrophic life-style. Among the 248 candidate effectors of pathogenesis identified in the Blumeria genome, very few (less than 10) define a core set conserved in all three mildews, suggesting that most effectors represent species-specific adaptations.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Adaptation, Physiological; Ascomycota, genetics/growth /&/ development/metabolism/pathogenicity; Carbohydrate Metabolism; Carrier Proteins, genetics/metabolism; Enzymes, genetics/metabolism; Evolution, Molecular; Fungal Proteins, chemistry/genetics/metabolism; Gene Deletion; Genes, Fungal; Genome, Fungal; Hordeum, microbiology; Host-Pathogen Interactions, genetics; Metabolic Networks and Pathways, genetics; Molecular Sequence Annotation; Plant Diseases, microbiology; Retroelements; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Species Specificity
Language:English
Date:2010
Deposited On:29 Jan 2011 17:18
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:39
Publisher:American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
ISSN:0036-8075
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1194573
PubMed ID:21148392

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