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Adenosine A1 receptor activation as a brake on the microglial response after experimental traumatic brain injury in mice - Zurich Open Repository and Archive


Haselkorn, M L; Shellington, D K; Jackson, E K; et al; Dubey, R K (2010). Adenosine A1 receptor activation as a brake on the microglial response after experimental traumatic brain injury in mice. Journal of Neurotrauma, (27):901-910.

Abstract

We reported that adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)AR) knockout (KO) mice develop lethal status epilepticus after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is not seen in wild-type (WT) mice. Studies in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and neuro-oncology suggest enhanced neuro-inflammation and/or neuronal death in A(1)AR KO. We hypothesized that A(1)AR deficiency exacerbates the microglial response and neuronal damage after TBI. A(1)AR KO and WT littermates were subjected to mild controlled cortical impact (3 m/sec; 0.5 mm depth) to left parietal cortex, an injury level below the acute seizure threshold in the KO. At 24 h or 7 days, mice were sacrificed and serial sections prepared. Iba-1 immunostaining was used to quantify microglia at 7 days. To assess neuronal injury, sections were stained with Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) at 24 h to evaluate neuronal death in the hippocampus and cresyl violet staining at 7 days to analyze cortical lesion volumes. We also studied the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on (3)H-thymidine uptake (proliferation index) by BV-2 cells (immortalized mouse microglial). There was no neuronal death in CA1 or CA3 quantified by FJC. A(1)AR KO mice exhibited enhanced microglial response; specifically, Iba-1 + microglia were increased 20-50% more in A(1)AR KO versus WT in ipsilateral cortex, CA3, and thalamus, and contralateral cortex, CA1, and thalamus (p < 0.05). However, contusion and cortical volumes did not differ between KO and WT. Pharmacological studies in cultured BV-2 cells indicated that A(1)AR activation inhibits microglial proliferation. A(1)AR activation is an endogenous inhibitor of the microglial response to TBI, likely via inhibition of proliferation, and this may represent a therapeutic avenue to modulate microglia after TBI.

Abstract

We reported that adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)AR) knockout (KO) mice develop lethal status epilepticus after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is not seen in wild-type (WT) mice. Studies in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and neuro-oncology suggest enhanced neuro-inflammation and/or neuronal death in A(1)AR KO. We hypothesized that A(1)AR deficiency exacerbates the microglial response and neuronal damage after TBI. A(1)AR KO and WT littermates were subjected to mild controlled cortical impact (3 m/sec; 0.5 mm depth) to left parietal cortex, an injury level below the acute seizure threshold in the KO. At 24 h or 7 days, mice were sacrificed and serial sections prepared. Iba-1 immunostaining was used to quantify microglia at 7 days. To assess neuronal injury, sections were stained with Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) at 24 h to evaluate neuronal death in the hippocampus and cresyl violet staining at 7 days to analyze cortical lesion volumes. We also studied the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on (3)H-thymidine uptake (proliferation index) by BV-2 cells (immortalized mouse microglial). There was no neuronal death in CA1 or CA3 quantified by FJC. A(1)AR KO mice exhibited enhanced microglial response; specifically, Iba-1 + microglia were increased 20-50% more in A(1)AR KO versus WT in ipsilateral cortex, CA3, and thalamus, and contralateral cortex, CA1, and thalamus (p < 0.05). However, contusion and cortical volumes did not differ between KO and WT. Pharmacological studies in cultured BV-2 cells indicated that A(1)AR activation inhibits microglial proliferation. A(1)AR activation is an endogenous inhibitor of the microglial response to TBI, likely via inhibition of proliferation, and this may represent a therapeutic avenue to modulate microglia after TBI.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Reproductive Endocrinology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:May 2010
Deposited On:08 Feb 2011 10:26
Last Modified:05 Aug 2017 20:59
Publisher:Mary Ann Liebert
ISSN:0897-7151
Additional Information:This is a copy of an article published in the Journal of Neurotrauma © 2010 Copyright Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Journal of Neurotrauma is available online at: http://www.liebertonline.com
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1089=neu.2009.1075
Related URLs:http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/neu.2009.1075 (Publisher)
PubMed ID:20121416

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