Prion diseases are untreatable neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of PrP(Sc), an aggregated isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). We generated a library of PrP variants with random mutations in the helix-3 domain and screened for dominant-negative mutants (DNMs) that would inhibit replication of prions (the Rocky Mountain Laboratory strain) in infected N2a cells. Two of the identified PrP mutants, Q167R and Q218K, were already known to counteract prion replication, thereby validating the effectiveness of this approach. In addition, novel DNMs were found efficiently to antagonize PrP(Sc) propagation in cells. In contrast to Q167R and Q218K, the newly identified DNMs S221P and Y217C resided on the cell surface at a substantially lower level, suggesting that robust cell surface display of DNM might not be a general prerequisite for efficient prion antagonism. The newly identified DNMs point to useful target-selective therapeutic tools for the treatment of prion diseases.