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Rhenium hydride/boron Lewis acid cocatalysis of alkene hydrogenations: activities comparable to those of precious metal systems


Jiang, Y; Hess, J; Fox, T; Berke, H (2010). Rhenium hydride/boron Lewis acid cocatalysis of alkene hydrogenations: activities comparable to those of precious metal systems. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(51):18233-18247.

Abstract

Dibromonitrosyl(dihydrogen)rhenium(I) complexes [ReBr(2)(NO)(PR(3))(2)(η(2)-H(2))] (1; R = iPr, a; Cy, b) and Me(2)NH·BH(3) (DMAB) catalyze at either 90 °C or ambient temperature under 10 bar of H(2) the hydrogenation of various terminal and cyclic alkenes (1-hexene, 1-octene, cyclooctene, styrene, 1,5-cyclooctadiene, 1,7-octadiene, α-methylstyrene). Maximum turnover frequency (TOF) values of 3.6 × 10(4) h(-1) at 90 °C and 1.7 × 10(4) h(-1) at 23 °C were achieved in the hydrogenation of 1-hexene. The extraordinary catalytic performance of the 1/DMAB system is attributed to the formation of five-coordinate rhenium(I) hydride complexes [Re(Br)(H)(NO)(PR(3))(2)] (2; R = iPr, a; Cy, b) and the action of the Lewis acid BH(3) originating from DMAB. The related 2/BH(3)·THF catalytic system also exhibits under the same conditions high activity in the hydrogenation of various alkenes with a maximum turnover number (TON) of 1.2 × 10(4) and a maximum TOF of 4.0 × 10(4) h(-1). For the hydrogenations of 1-hexene with 2a and 2b, the effect of the strength of the boron Lewis acid was studied, the acidity being in the following order: BCl(3) > BH(3) > BEt(3) ≈ BF(3) > B(C(6)F(5))(3) > BPh(3) ≫ B(OMe)(3). The order in catalytic activity was found to be B(C(6)F(5))(3) > BEt(3) ≈ BH(3)·THF > BPh(3) ≫ BF(3)·OEt(2) > B(OMe)(3) ≫ BCl(3). The stability of the catalytic systems was checked via TON vs time plots, which revealed the boron Lewis acids to cause an approximate inverse order with the Lewis acid strength: BPh(3) > BEt(3) ≈ BH(3)·THF > B(C(6)F(5))(3). For the 2a/BPh(3) system a maximum TON of 3.1 × 10(4) and for the 2a/B(C(6)F(5))(3) system a maximum TOF of 5.6 × 10(4) h(-1) were obtained in the hydrogenation of 1-hexene. On the basis of kinetic isotope effect determinations, H(2)/D(2) scrambling, halide exchange experiments, Lewis acid variations, and isomerization of terminal alkenes, an Osborn-type catalytic cycle is proposed with olefin before H(2) addition. The active rhenium(I) monohydride species is assumed to be formed via reversible bromide abstraction with the "cocatalytic" Lewis acid. Homogeneity of the hydrogenations was tested with filtration and mercury poisoning experiments. These "rhenium(I) hydride/boron Lewis acid" systems demonstrate catalytic activities comparable to those of Wilkinson- or Schrock-Osborn-type hydrogenations accomplished with precious metal catalysts.

Abstract

Dibromonitrosyl(dihydrogen)rhenium(I) complexes [ReBr(2)(NO)(PR(3))(2)(η(2)-H(2))] (1; R = iPr, a; Cy, b) and Me(2)NH·BH(3) (DMAB) catalyze at either 90 °C or ambient temperature under 10 bar of H(2) the hydrogenation of various terminal and cyclic alkenes (1-hexene, 1-octene, cyclooctene, styrene, 1,5-cyclooctadiene, 1,7-octadiene, α-methylstyrene). Maximum turnover frequency (TOF) values of 3.6 × 10(4) h(-1) at 90 °C and 1.7 × 10(4) h(-1) at 23 °C were achieved in the hydrogenation of 1-hexene. The extraordinary catalytic performance of the 1/DMAB system is attributed to the formation of five-coordinate rhenium(I) hydride complexes [Re(Br)(H)(NO)(PR(3))(2)] (2; R = iPr, a; Cy, b) and the action of the Lewis acid BH(3) originating from DMAB. The related 2/BH(3)·THF catalytic system also exhibits under the same conditions high activity in the hydrogenation of various alkenes with a maximum turnover number (TON) of 1.2 × 10(4) and a maximum TOF of 4.0 × 10(4) h(-1). For the hydrogenations of 1-hexene with 2a and 2b, the effect of the strength of the boron Lewis acid was studied, the acidity being in the following order: BCl(3) > BH(3) > BEt(3) ≈ BF(3) > B(C(6)F(5))(3) > BPh(3) ≫ B(OMe)(3). The order in catalytic activity was found to be B(C(6)F(5))(3) > BEt(3) ≈ BH(3)·THF > BPh(3) ≫ BF(3)·OEt(2) > B(OMe)(3) ≫ BCl(3). The stability of the catalytic systems was checked via TON vs time plots, which revealed the boron Lewis acids to cause an approximate inverse order with the Lewis acid strength: BPh(3) > BEt(3) ≈ BH(3)·THF > B(C(6)F(5))(3). For the 2a/BPh(3) system a maximum TON of 3.1 × 10(4) and for the 2a/B(C(6)F(5))(3) system a maximum TOF of 5.6 × 10(4) h(-1) were obtained in the hydrogenation of 1-hexene. On the basis of kinetic isotope effect determinations, H(2)/D(2) scrambling, halide exchange experiments, Lewis acid variations, and isomerization of terminal alkenes, an Osborn-type catalytic cycle is proposed with olefin before H(2) addition. The active rhenium(I) monohydride species is assumed to be formed via reversible bromide abstraction with the "cocatalytic" Lewis acid. Homogeneity of the hydrogenations was tested with filtration and mercury poisoning experiments. These "rhenium(I) hydride/boron Lewis acid" systems demonstrate catalytic activities comparable to those of Wilkinson- or Schrock-Osborn-type hydrogenations accomplished with precious metal catalysts.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:2010
Deposited On:25 Feb 2011 17:58
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 14:50
Publisher:American Chemical Society
ISSN:0002-7863
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1021/ja107187r
PubMed ID:21141863

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