Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a disease that primarily affects the peripheral retina and ultimately causes visual impairment. X-chromosomal forms of RP are frequently caused by mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) gene. We show that the novel splice donor site (SDS) mutation c.1245+3A>T in intron 10 of RPGR cosegregates with RP in a five-generation Caucasian family. The mutation causes in-frame skipping of exon 10 from RPGR transcripts in patient-derived primary fibroblasts. To correct the splice defect, we developed a gene therapeutic approach using mutation-adapted U1 small nuclear RNA (U1). U1 is required for SDS recognition of pre-mRNAs and initiates the splice process. The mutation described herein interferes with the recognition of the SDS by U1. To overcome the deleterious effects of the mutation, we generated four U1 isoforms with increasing complementarity to the SDS. Lentiviral particles were used to transduce patient-derived fibroblasts with these U1 variants. Full complementarity of U1 corrects the splice defect partially and increases recognition of the mutant SDS. The therapeutic effect is U1-concentration dependent as we show for endogenously expressed RPGR transcripts in patient-derived cells. U1-based gene therapeutic approaches constitute promising technologies to treat SDS mutations in inherited diseases including X-linked RP.