“The Ancient World as Utopia – from the Literary Sources of Poetry to the Ideology of Restora¬tion.” Why did the Meiji Restoration in nineteenth century Japan build its ideological base on the more than 1200 year old myths of the Kojiki and Nihon shoki, although the Meiji Restoration had the purpose of developing a modern government after the Western model, including the scientific knowledge and top technology of its time? This paper proposes to explain this discrepancy by outlining the historical background up to the kokugaku (National School), and especially by considering classical philological studies in poetry. Utopia is an ideal which can be imagined, but is quite different from reality. Utopia is also used as a synonym for an impossible plan, concept or vision; antiquity was the ideal world of such a vision for the National School. I will outline the historical background of Japanese antiquity as described in the Kojiki and Nihon shoki on the basis of historical studies after the paradigm shift in 1945. I shall look at the image of antiquity as portrayed in the formation of the National School in the middle of the Edo period and its function, and survey how this vision changed.