The anion exchanger pendrin (Pds, SLC26A4) transports various anions including bicarbonate, chloride and iodide. In the kidney, pendrin is exclusively expressed on the luminal pole of bicarbonate-secretory type B intercalated cells. Genetic ablation of pendrin in mice abolishes luminal chloride-bicarbonate exchanger activity from type B intercalated cells suggesting that pendrin is the apical bicarbonate extruding pathway. The renal expression of pendrin is developmentally adapted and pendrin positive cells originate from both the uretric bud and mesenchyme. In adult kidney, pendrin expression and activity is regulated by systemic acid-base status, dietary electrolyte intake (mostly chloride), and hormones such as angiotensin II and aldosterone which can affect subcellular localization, the relative number of pendrin expressing cells, and the overall abundance consistent with a role of pendrin in maintaining normal acid-base homeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings on the role and regulation of pendrin in the context of the kidneys role in acid-base homeostasis in health and disease.