Abstract Blocking the function of the myelin protein Nogo-A or its signaling pathway is a promising method to overcome an important neurite growth inhibitory factor of the adult central nervous system (CNS), and to enhance axonal regeneration and plasticity after brain or spinal cord injuries. Several studies have shown increased axonal regeneration and enhanced compensatory sprouting, along with substantially improved functional recovery after treatment with anti-Nogo-A antibodies, Nogo-receptor antagonists, or inhibition of the downstream mediator RhoA/ROCK in adult rodents. Proof-of-concept studies in spinal cord-injured macaque monkeys with anti-Nogo-A antibodies have replicated these findings; recently, clinical trials in spinal cord-injured patients have begun. However, the optimal time window for successful Nogo-A function blocking treatments has not yet been determined. We studied the effect of acute as well as 1- or 2-weeks delayed intrathecal anti-Nogo-A antibody infusions on the regeneration of corticospinal tract (CST) axons and the recovery of motor function after large but anatomically incomplete thoracic spinal cord injuries in adult rats. We found that lesioned CST fibers regenerated over several millimeters after acute or 1-week-delayed treatments, but not when the antibody treatment was started with a delay of 2 weeks. Swimming and narrow beam crossing recovered well in rats treated acutely or with a 1-week delay with anti-Nogo-A antibodies, but not in the 2-week-delayed group. These results show that the time frame for treatment of spinal cord lesions with anti-Nogo-A antibodies is restricted to less than 2 weeks in adult rodents.