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Impaired antibody memory to varicella zoster virus in HIV-infected children: low antibody levels and avidity(*)


L'huillier, A G; Ferry, T; Courvoisier, D S; Aebi, C; Cheseaux, J J; Kind, C; Rudin, C; Nadal, D; Hirschel, B; Sottas, C; Siegrist, C A; Posfay-Barbe, K M (2012). Impaired antibody memory to varicella zoster virus in HIV-infected children: low antibody levels and avidity(*). HIV Medicine, 13(1):54-61.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected children have impaired antibody responses after exposure to certain antigens. Our aim was to determine whether HIV-infected children had lower varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody levels compared with HIV-infected adults or healthy children and, if so, whether this was attributable to an impaired primary response, accelerated antibody loss, or failure to reactivate the memory VZV response. METHODS: In a prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective longitudinal study, we compared antibody responses, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), elicited by VZV infection in 97 HIV-infected children and 78 HIV-infected adults treated with antiretroviral therapy, followed over 10 years, and 97 age-matched healthy children. We also tested antibody avidity in HIV-infected and healthy children. RESULTS: Median anti-VZV immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were lower in HIV-infected children than in adults (264 vs. 1535 IU/L; P<0.001) and levels became more frequently unprotective over time in the children [odds ratio (OR) 17.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.36-72.25; P<0.001]. High HIV viral load was predictive of VZV antibody waning in HIV-infected children. Anti-VZV antibodies did not decline more rapidly in HIV-infected children than in adults. Antibody levels increased with age in healthy (P=0.004) but not in HIV-infected children. Thus, antibody levels were lower in HIV-infected than in healthy children (median 1151 IU/L; P<0.001). Antibody avidity was lower in HIV-infected than healthy children (P<0.001). A direct correlation between anti-VZV IgG level and avidity was present in HIV-infected children (P=0.001), but not in healthy children. CONCLUSION: Failure to maintain anti-VZV IgG levels in HIV-infected children results from failure to reactivate memory responses. Further studies are required to investigate long-term protection and the potential benefits of immunization.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected children have impaired antibody responses after exposure to certain antigens. Our aim was to determine whether HIV-infected children had lower varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody levels compared with HIV-infected adults or healthy children and, if so, whether this was attributable to an impaired primary response, accelerated antibody loss, or failure to reactivate the memory VZV response. METHODS: In a prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective longitudinal study, we compared antibody responses, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), elicited by VZV infection in 97 HIV-infected children and 78 HIV-infected adults treated with antiretroviral therapy, followed over 10 years, and 97 age-matched healthy children. We also tested antibody avidity in HIV-infected and healthy children. RESULTS: Median anti-VZV immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were lower in HIV-infected children than in adults (264 vs. 1535 IU/L; P<0.001) and levels became more frequently unprotective over time in the children [odds ratio (OR) 17.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.36-72.25; P<0.001]. High HIV viral load was predictive of VZV antibody waning in HIV-infected children. Anti-VZV antibodies did not decline more rapidly in HIV-infected children than in adults. Antibody levels increased with age in healthy (P=0.004) but not in HIV-infected children. Thus, antibody levels were lower in HIV-infected than in healthy children (median 1151 IU/L; P<0.001). Antibody avidity was lower in HIV-infected than healthy children (P<0.001). A direct correlation between anti-VZV IgG level and avidity was present in HIV-infected children (P=0.001), but not in healthy children. CONCLUSION: Failure to maintain anti-VZV IgG levels in HIV-infected children results from failure to reactivate memory responses. Further studies are required to investigate long-term protection and the potential benefits of immunization.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:30 Mar 2012 07:11
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 11:31
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:1464-2662
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2011.00936.x
PubMed ID:21722287

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