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Phylogeny, morphology, and biogeography of Haplophyllum (Rutaceae), a species-rich genus of the Irano-Turanian floristic region


Salvo, G; Manafzadeh, S; Ghahremaninejad, F; Tojibaev, K; Zeltner, L; Conti, E (2011). Phylogeny, morphology, and biogeography of Haplophyllum (Rutaceae), a species-rich genus of the Irano-Turanian floristic region. Taxon, 60(2):513-527.

Abstract

Haplophyllum A. Juss. is one of the most species-rich, but poorly-known genera of Rutaceae (citrus family), reaching
maximum species diversity in Turkey, Iran, and Central Asia. Many of its species exhibit a narrow geographic range (“narrow
endemics”), which makes them particularly vulnerable to extinction. Despite its importance for the characterization of the
Irano-Turanian floristic region, the evolution of species diversity in Haplophyllum has never been examined in a phylogenetic
and biogeographic context. We generated gene trees from DNA sequences of four regions of the chloroplast genome for 118
accessions, representing 66% of the species diversity of the genus. Additionally, Haplophyllum was examined morphologically.
The phylogenetic analyses showed that several species of the genus do not form reciprocally monophyletic groups. Optimization
of morphological characters on the chloroplast DNA phylogeny indicated that most of the species, in particular those with
a widespread geographic distribution, can only be diagnosed by combinations of homoplasious character states. Homoplasy
notwithstanding, the main morphological characters traditionally used to classify the genus are consistent with the molecular
phylogeny of Haplophyllum. Finally, the Mediterranean representatives of Haplophyllum were found to be embedded within a
clade that includes primarily Irano-Turanian species, suggesting multiple invasions of the Mediterranean basin from the east.

Abstract

Haplophyllum A. Juss. is one of the most species-rich, but poorly-known genera of Rutaceae (citrus family), reaching
maximum species diversity in Turkey, Iran, and Central Asia. Many of its species exhibit a narrow geographic range (“narrow
endemics”), which makes them particularly vulnerable to extinction. Despite its importance for the characterization of the
Irano-Turanian floristic region, the evolution of species diversity in Haplophyllum has never been examined in a phylogenetic
and biogeographic context. We generated gene trees from DNA sequences of four regions of the chloroplast genome for 118
accessions, representing 66% of the species diversity of the genus. Additionally, Haplophyllum was examined morphologically.
The phylogenetic analyses showed that several species of the genus do not form reciprocally monophyletic groups. Optimization
of morphological characters on the chloroplast DNA phylogeny indicated that most of the species, in particular those with
a widespread geographic distribution, can only be diagnosed by combinations of homoplasious character states. Homoplasy
notwithstanding, the main morphological characters traditionally used to classify the genus are consistent with the molecular
phylogeny of Haplophyllum. Finally, the Mediterranean representatives of Haplophyllum were found to be embedded within a
clade that includes primarily Irano-Turanian species, suggesting multiple invasions of the Mediterranean basin from the east.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Date:2011
Deposited On:22 Feb 2012 15:36
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:26
Publisher:International Association for Plant Taxonomy
ISSN:0040-0262
Official URL:http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iapt/tax/2011/00000060/00000002/art00018

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