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Upper respiratory tract disease in captive orangutans (Pongo sp.): prevalence in 20 European zoos and predisposing factors


Zimmermann, N; Pirovino, M; Zingg, R; Clauss, Marcus; Kaup, F J; Heistermann, M; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Steinmetz, H W (2011). Upper respiratory tract disease in captive orangutans (Pongo sp.): prevalence in 20 European zoos and predisposing factors. Journal of Medical Primatology, 40(6):365-375.

Abstract

Background Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is a significant cause of morbidity in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus), and the pathogenesis is often unknown.
Methods The prevalence of respiratory disease in captive European orangutans (201 animals; 20 zoos) and possible predisposing factors were investigated.
Results Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus) showed chronic respiratory signs significantly more often (13.8%) than Sumatran (P. abelii; 3.6%), and males (15.8%) were more often afflicted than females (3.9%). Hand-reared animals (21%) developed air sacculitis more often than parent-reared animals (5%). Diseased animals were more often genetically related to animals with respiratory diseases (93%) than to healthy animals (54%). None of the environmental conditions investigated had a significant effect on disease prevalence.
Conclusion Results suggest a higher importance of individual factors for the development of URTD than environmental conditions. Bornean, male and hand-reared orangutans and animals related to diseased animals need increased medical surveillance for early detection of respiratory disease.

Abstract

Background Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) is a significant cause of morbidity in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus), and the pathogenesis is often unknown.
Methods The prevalence of respiratory disease in captive European orangutans (201 animals; 20 zoos) and possible predisposing factors were investigated.
Results Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus) showed chronic respiratory signs significantly more often (13.8%) than Sumatran (P. abelii; 3.6%), and males (15.8%) were more often afflicted than females (3.9%). Hand-reared animals (21%) developed air sacculitis more often than parent-reared animals (5%). Diseased animals were more often genetically related to animals with respiratory diseases (93%) than to healthy animals (54%). None of the environmental conditions investigated had a significant effect on disease prevalence.
Conclusion Results suggest a higher importance of individual factors for the development of URTD than environmental conditions. Bornean, male and hand-reared orangutans and animals related to diseased animals need increased medical surveillance for early detection of respiratory disease.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Date:2011
Deposited On:01 Feb 2012 08:27
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 11:43
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell
ISSN:0047-2565
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0684.2011.00490.x
PubMed ID:21770970

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