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Refined crystal structures of human Ca(2+)/Zn(2+)-binding S100A3 protein characterized by two disulfide bridges


Unno, M; Kawasaki, T; Takahara, H; Heizmann, C W; Kizawa, K (2011). Refined crystal structures of human Ca(2+)/Zn(2+)-binding S100A3 protein characterized by two disulfide bridges. Journal of Molecular Biology, 408(3):477-490.

Abstract

S100A3, a member of the EF-hand-type Ca(2+)-binding S100 protein family, is unique in its exceptionally high cysteine content and Zn(2+) affinity. We produced human S100A3 protein and its mutants in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system. The purified wild-type S100A3 and the pseudo-citrullinated form (R51A) were crystallized with ammonium sulfate in N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine buffer and, specifically for postrefolding treatment, with Ca(2+)/Zn(2+) supplementation. We identified two previously undocumented disulfide bridges in the crystal structure of properly folded S100A3: one disulfide bridge is between Cys30 in the N-terminal pseudo-EF-hand and Cys68 in the C-terminal EF-hand (SS1), and another disulfide bridge attaches Cys99 in the C-terminal coil structure to Cys81 in helix IV (SS2). Mutational disruption of SS1 (C30A+C68A) abolished the Ca(2+) binding property of S100A3 and retarded the citrullination of Arg51 by peptidylarginine deiminase type III (PAD3), while SS2 disruption inversely increased both Ca(2+) affinity and PAD3 reactivity in vitro. Similar backbone structures of wild type, R51A, and C30A+C68A indicated that neither Arg51 conversion by PAD3 nor SS1 alters the overall dimer conformation. Comparative inspection of atomic coordinates refined to 2.15-1.40 Å resolution shows that SS1 renders the C-terminal classical Ca(2+)-binding loop flexible, which are essential for its Ca(2+) binding properties, whereas SS2 structurally shelters Arg51 in the metal-free form. We propose a model of the tetrahedral coordination of a Zn(2+) by (Cys)(3)His residues that is compatible with SS2 formation in S100A3.

Abstract

S100A3, a member of the EF-hand-type Ca(2+)-binding S100 protein family, is unique in its exceptionally high cysteine content and Zn(2+) affinity. We produced human S100A3 protein and its mutants in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system. The purified wild-type S100A3 and the pseudo-citrullinated form (R51A) were crystallized with ammonium sulfate in N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine buffer and, specifically for postrefolding treatment, with Ca(2+)/Zn(2+) supplementation. We identified two previously undocumented disulfide bridges in the crystal structure of properly folded S100A3: one disulfide bridge is between Cys30 in the N-terminal pseudo-EF-hand and Cys68 in the C-terminal EF-hand (SS1), and another disulfide bridge attaches Cys99 in the C-terminal coil structure to Cys81 in helix IV (SS2). Mutational disruption of SS1 (C30A+C68A) abolished the Ca(2+) binding property of S100A3 and retarded the citrullination of Arg51 by peptidylarginine deiminase type III (PAD3), while SS2 disruption inversely increased both Ca(2+) affinity and PAD3 reactivity in vitro. Similar backbone structures of wild type, R51A, and C30A+C68A indicated that neither Arg51 conversion by PAD3 nor SS1 alters the overall dimer conformation. Comparative inspection of atomic coordinates refined to 2.15-1.40 Å resolution shows that SS1 renders the C-terminal classical Ca(2+)-binding loop flexible, which are essential for its Ca(2+) binding properties, whereas SS2 structurally shelters Arg51 in the metal-free form. We propose a model of the tetrahedral coordination of a Zn(2+) by (Cys)(3)His residues that is compatible with SS2 formation in S100A3.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2011
Deposited On:30 Jan 2012 09:27
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 11:46
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0022-2836
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2011.02.055
PubMed ID:21377473

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