Ocular infections by chlamydiae are associated with ocular disease manifestations such as conjunctivitis and keratitis in humans and animals. Limited evidence exists that members of the order Chlamydiales can also cause ocular disease in sheep. In the current study, the prevalence of chlamydiae in the eyes of sheep was investigated by using PCR methods. Data obtained in sheep by broad-range 16S rRNA order Chlamydiales-specific PCR were compared to the prevalence of antibodies against chlamydiae detected by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Flocks tested included a clinically healthy flock and two flocks suffering from ocular disease and with histories of Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA). PCR detected DNA of Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus and Cp. pecorum in the eyes of both healthy and sick animals but also identified Chlamydia (C.) suis and a variety of uncultured chlamydia-like organisms. Good correlation was found between the presence of Cp. abortus DNA in sheep conjunctival samples and seropositivity detected by cELISA. Despite these findings, no association was found between the presence of chlamydial DNA in the sheep conjunctival samples and the onset of clinical disease. These results suggest that the biodiversity of chlamydiae in the eyes of sheep is greater than that previously thought. Further investigations are needed to determine whether a causal relationship between infection by chlamydiae and ocular disease exists in these animals.