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Nonmotor disturbances in Parkinson's disease


Bassetti, C L (2011). Nonmotor disturbances in Parkinson's disease. Neurodegenerative Diseases, 8(3):95-108.

Abstract

Nonmotor disturbances (NMDs) affect most patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and often have a profound impact on their quality of life. NMDs such as depression, anxiety, fatigue, REM sleep behavior disorder, constipation, delayed gastric emptying, altered olfaction and pain can precede the onset of motor symptoms. Other NMDs, including hallucinations, dementia, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, orthostatic hypotension and bladder disturbances, typically appear later in the course of PD. For most NMDs of PD, nondopaminergic and non-nigrostriatal mechanisms (e.g. neurodegeneration of other transmitter systems in the cortex and brainstem, side effects of medications, genetic and psychosocial factors) are considered more relevant than the 'classical' dopaminergic-nigrostriatal dysfunction. The recognition of NMDs requires a high degree of clinical suspicion, the use of specific questionnaires and ancillary tests. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches can be effective, but for most forms of treatment of NMDs, the scientific evidence is limited.

Abstract

Nonmotor disturbances (NMDs) affect most patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and often have a profound impact on their quality of life. NMDs such as depression, anxiety, fatigue, REM sleep behavior disorder, constipation, delayed gastric emptying, altered olfaction and pain can precede the onset of motor symptoms. Other NMDs, including hallucinations, dementia, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, orthostatic hypotension and bladder disturbances, typically appear later in the course of PD. For most NMDs of PD, nondopaminergic and non-nigrostriatal mechanisms (e.g. neurodegeneration of other transmitter systems in the cortex and brainstem, side effects of medications, genetic and psychosocial factors) are considered more relevant than the 'classical' dopaminergic-nigrostriatal dysfunction. The recognition of NMDs requires a high degree of clinical suspicion, the use of specific questionnaires and ancillary tests. Pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches can be effective, but for most forms of treatment of NMDs, the scientific evidence is limited.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2011
Deposited On:30 Jan 2012 08:08
Last Modified:24 Jun 2016 13:00
Publisher:Karger
ISSN:1660-2854
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1159/000316613
PubMed ID:21196687

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