This study investigated the effect of surface treatments on the retentive strength of zirconia posts and cores to root canals. Maxillary central incisors (n = 40) were treated endodontically, obturated, and post spaces were prepared. Zirconia posts and cores (n = 40) were obtained and assigned randomly to four groups (n = 10 per group; control, sandblasting, tribochemical silica coating, and tribochemical silica coating + silanization). Posts were cemented adhesively, and tensile force was applied. All treatment methods increased the tensile strength of zirconia posts and cores compared to the control group (P = .034). No significant difference was found between treatment methods. Failure types varied depending on the surface treatment method.