Rabbits and rodents are popular pets and are often presented to veterinarians for evaluation and medical treatment. Anesthesia in exotic pets is required for many diagnostic and surgical procedures and is associated with a higher perioperative risk in rabbits and rodents when compared with dogs and cats. Inhalation anesthetic agents are commonly used as the sole source of anesthesia in small rodents, whereas injectable agents in combination with inhalation anesthesia are often used for rabbits and larger rodents. Analgesia is an important component of exotic pet medicine. Although it may be difficult to recognize signs of pain in companion exotic mammals, adequate pain management should always be provided. Opioid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are the analgesic medications of choice, but others should be considered (e.g., local anesthetic agents). This article provides an update of the current literature regarding anesthesia and analgesia in rabbits and rodents.