The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high and diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of CKD. One of the most common complications of CKD is anemia, the frequency and severity of which increase as kidney failure progresses. Renal anemia is primarily caused by reduced renal erythropoietin production. It can also be associated with iron deficiency caused by reduced iron absorption, occult blood loss and impaired iron mobilization. This work provides an overview of the management of renal anemia with focus on intravenous iron therapy, which is more effective than oral iron administration in CKD due to reduced iron absorption.