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Transient fulminant liver failure as an initial presentation in citrullinemia type I


Faghfoury, H; Baruteau, J; de Baulny, H O; Häberle, J; Schulze, A (2011). Transient fulminant liver failure as an initial presentation in citrullinemia type I. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 102(4):413-417.

Abstract

Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1) is a urea cycle disorder which typically presents in the neonatal period or infancy with hyperammonemia and concurrent neurologic deterioration. We report a 15-month-old female with CTLN1 who presented with encephalopathy and seizures with hyperammonemia requiring emergency treatment. Although there was a rapid resolution of her hyperammonemia, she developed fulminant liver failure. The severe increase of transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels peaking at 19,794 UI/L and 19,938 UI/L, respectively) and concurrent disturbances in her hepatic synthetic functions led to the consideration of a liver transplantation. However, there was a normalization of her liver function tests over the course of weeks with supportive therapy alone. Molecular analysis of the ASS1 gene confirmed the diagnosis of CTLN1 by revealing the known mutation c.1087C>T (p.R363W) on the paternal allele and an intronic nucleotide exchange leading to an insertion of 69 bp on the transcript resulting in a frameshift and premature stop of translation on the maternal allele. We also briefly report another case of CTLN1 where liver failure was a prominent feature of the presentation. Fulminant liver failure has been described with a variety of other urea cycle disorders, but has been described in infantile onset presentation of CTLN1 in only two other cases recently. Our observation suggests that in some cases of CTLN1 with acute liver failure, emergency intervention such as transplantation is not warranted despite evidence of severe hepatotoxicity.

Abstract

Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1) is a urea cycle disorder which typically presents in the neonatal period or infancy with hyperammonemia and concurrent neurologic deterioration. We report a 15-month-old female with CTLN1 who presented with encephalopathy and seizures with hyperammonemia requiring emergency treatment. Although there was a rapid resolution of her hyperammonemia, she developed fulminant liver failure. The severe increase of transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels peaking at 19,794 UI/L and 19,938 UI/L, respectively) and concurrent disturbances in her hepatic synthetic functions led to the consideration of a liver transplantation. However, there was a normalization of her liver function tests over the course of weeks with supportive therapy alone. Molecular analysis of the ASS1 gene confirmed the diagnosis of CTLN1 by revealing the known mutation c.1087C>T (p.R363W) on the paternal allele and an intronic nucleotide exchange leading to an insertion of 69 bp on the transcript resulting in a frameshift and premature stop of translation on the maternal allele. We also briefly report another case of CTLN1 where liver failure was a prominent feature of the presentation. Fulminant liver failure has been described with a variety of other urea cycle disorders, but has been described in infantile onset presentation of CTLN1 in only two other cases recently. Our observation suggests that in some cases of CTLN1 with acute liver failure, emergency intervention such as transplantation is not warranted despite evidence of severe hepatotoxicity.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:April 2011
Deposited On:26 Feb 2012 09:23
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:39
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1096-7192
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2010.12.007
PubMed ID:21227727

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