The ability of foodborne pathogens to survive in certain foods mainly depends on stress response mechanisms. Insight into molecular properties enabling pathogenic bacteria to survive in food is valuable for improvement of the control of pathogens during food processing. Raw milk cheeses are a potential source for human infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this review, we focused on the stress response mechanisms important for allowing STEC to survive raw milk cheese production processes. The major components and regulation pathways for general, acid, osmotic, and heat shock stress responses in E. coli and the implications of these responses for the survival of STEC in raw milk cheeses are discussed.