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Topoisomerase I poisoning results in PARP-mediated replication fork reversal


Ray Chaudhuri, Arnab; Hashimoto, Yoshitami; Herrador, Raquel; Neelsen, Kai J; Fachinetti, Daniele; Bermejo, Rodrigo; Cocito, Andrea; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Lopes, Massimo (2012). Topoisomerase I poisoning results in PARP-mediated replication fork reversal. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, 19(4):417-423.

Abstract

Topoisomerase I (Top1) releases torsional stress during DNA replication and transcription and is inhibited by camptothecin and camptothecin-derived cancer chemotherapeutics. Top1 inhibitor cytotoxicity is frequently linked to double-strand break (DSB) formation as a result of Top1 being trapped on a nicked DNA intermediate in replicating cells. Here we use yeast, mammalian cell lines and Xenopus laevis egg extracts to show that Top1 poisons rapidly induce replication-fork slowing and reversal, which can be uncoupled from DSB formation at sublethal inhibitor doses. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, but not single-stranded break repair in general, is required for effective fork reversal and limits DSB formation. These data identify fork reversal as a means to prevent chromosome breakage upon exogenous replication stress and implicate proteins involved in fork reversal or restart as factors modulating the cytotoxicity of replication stress-inducing chemotherapeutics.

Abstract

Topoisomerase I (Top1) releases torsional stress during DNA replication and transcription and is inhibited by camptothecin and camptothecin-derived cancer chemotherapeutics. Top1 inhibitor cytotoxicity is frequently linked to double-strand break (DSB) formation as a result of Top1 being trapped on a nicked DNA intermediate in replicating cells. Here we use yeast, mammalian cell lines and Xenopus laevis egg extracts to show that Top1 poisons rapidly induce replication-fork slowing and reversal, which can be uncoupled from DSB formation at sublethal inhibitor doses. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, but not single-stranded break repair in general, is required for effective fork reversal and limits DSB formation. These data identify fork reversal as a means to prevent chromosome breakage upon exogenous replication stress and implicate proteins involved in fork reversal or restart as factors modulating the cytotoxicity of replication stress-inducing chemotherapeutics.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Molecular Cancer Research
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Cancer Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:16 Apr 2012 06:47
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 13:35
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:1545-9985
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.2258
PubMed ID:22388737

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