Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiovascular biomarker that might be useful in assessing the severity of cardiac disease in horses. Plasma ANP concentrations (Cp(ANP)) were compared between horses with heart disease but normal chamber size and function (Group A; n=6), horses with heart disease associated with left atrial (LA) enlargement, LA dysfunction, and/or left ventricular (LV) enlargement (Group B; n=5), and horses with no clinically apparent cardiovascular disease (Group C; n=13). The median (min-max) for Cp(ANP) was significantly higher in Group B (53.5 (36.0-70.7) pg/mL), compared to Group A (12.5 (6.3-19.8) pg/mL) and Group C (13.4 (7.2-34.0) pg/mL). Backwards stepwise multiple linear regression showed that Cp(ANP) in horses with heart disease was related to LA dimensions, but not to LV size, LA function, and LV function. The results indicated that Cp(ANP) in horses might be useful in detecting LA enlargement and that Cp(ANP) could be related to the severity of cardiac disease. Larger prospective studies are necessary to confirm these results.