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Radiographic measurement of internal organs in Spix’s Macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii)


Rettmer, H; Deb, A; Watson, R; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Hammer, S (2011). Radiographic measurement of internal organs in Spix’s Macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 25(4):254-258.

Abstract

Radiology is an important diagnostic instrument in avian medicine, but standard measurement ranges for the objective evaluation of radiographs are rare. During the setup of a medical management program for the critically endangered Spix’s macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), we measured selected internal organs of the coelomic cavity on 29 radiographs, taken under standardised conditions, of fully grown and juvenile, clinically healthy animals. Thus, reference ranges were established for the radiographic silhouettes of the heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, proventriculus, and the keel of the sternum. The ratios were determined for the proventricular diameter-to-keel height, the width of the heart to the width of the thorax, and for the “hourglass shape” (ratio of width of heart to width of liver). There were no significant differences between the sexes among the fully grown birds. Compared to the fully grown birds, juvenile females had significantly larger heart width (19.8 ± 1.4 cm versus 21.2 ± 0.7 cm), larger ratio of the heart width to thorax width (0.86 ± 0.08 versus 0.94 ± 0.09), and larger horizontal width of the spleen (7.7 ± 0.6 cm versus 8.5 ± 0.4 cm). Comparison of the results with published data, revealed that Spix’s macaws have comparable radiographic measurements to other psittacine birds. These reference ranges will facilitate a more objective radiographic evaluation of captive Spix’s macaws.

Abstract

Radiology is an important diagnostic instrument in avian medicine, but standard measurement ranges for the objective evaluation of radiographs are rare. During the setup of a medical management program for the critically endangered Spix’s macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), we measured selected internal organs of the coelomic cavity on 29 radiographs, taken under standardised conditions, of fully grown and juvenile, clinically healthy animals. Thus, reference ranges were established for the radiographic silhouettes of the heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, proventriculus, and the keel of the sternum. The ratios were determined for the proventricular diameter-to-keel height, the width of the heart to the width of the thorax, and for the “hourglass shape” (ratio of width of heart to width of liver). There were no significant differences between the sexes among the fully grown birds. Compared to the fully grown birds, juvenile females had significantly larger heart width (19.8 ± 1.4 cm versus 21.2 ± 0.7 cm), larger ratio of the heart width to thorax width (0.86 ± 0.08 versus 0.94 ± 0.09), and larger horizontal width of the spleen (7.7 ± 0.6 cm versus 8.5 ± 0.4 cm). Comparison of the results with published data, revealed that Spix’s macaws have comparable radiographic measurements to other psittacine birds. These reference ranges will facilitate a more objective radiographic evaluation of captive Spix’s macaws.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Small Animals
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
630 Agriculture
Language:English
Date:2011
Deposited On:27 Mar 2012 09:24
Last Modified:07 Dec 2017 13:42
Publisher:Association of Avian Veterinarians
ISSN:1082-6742
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1647/2009-062.1

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