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Investigating cognitive pathways to psychopathology: Predicting depression and posttraumatic stress disorder from early responses after assault


Kleim, Birgit; Ehlers, Anke; Glucksman, Edward (2012). Investigating cognitive pathways to psychopathology: Predicting depression and posttraumatic stress disorder from early responses after assault. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(5):527-537.

Abstract

Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common after trauma, but it remains unclear what factors determine which disorder a trauma survivor will develop. A prospective longitudinal study of 222 assault survivors assessed candidate predictors derived from cognitive models of depression and PTSD at 2 weeks posttrauma (N = 222), and depression and PTSD symptom severities (N = 183, 82%) and diagnoses at 6 months (N = 205, 92%). Structural equation modeling showed that the depression and PTSD models predicted both depression and PTSD symptom severity, but that the disorder-specific models predicted the respective outcome best (43% for depression, 59% for PTSD symptom severity). Maintaining cognitive variables (hopelessness and self-devaluative thoughts in depression; cognitive responses to intrusive memories and persistent dissociation in PTSD) showed the clearest specific relationships with outcome. Model-derived variables predicted depression and PTSD diagnoses at 6 months over and above what could be predicted from initial diagnoses. Results support the role of cognitive factors in the development of depression and PTSD after trauma, and provide preliminary evidence for some specificity in maintaining cognitive mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Abstract

Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common after trauma, but it remains unclear what factors determine which disorder a trauma survivor will develop. A prospective longitudinal study of 222 assault survivors assessed candidate predictors derived from cognitive models of depression and PTSD at 2 weeks posttrauma (N = 222), and depression and PTSD symptom severities (N = 183, 82%) and diagnoses at 6 months (N = 205, 92%). Structural equation modeling showed that the depression and PTSD models predicted both depression and PTSD symptom severity, but that the disorder-specific models predicted the respective outcome best (43% for depression, 59% for PTSD symptom severity). Maintaining cognitive variables (hopelessness and self-devaluative thoughts in depression; cognitive responses to intrusive memories and persistent dissociation in PTSD) showed the clearest specific relationships with outcome. Model-derived variables predicted depression and PTSD diagnoses at 6 months over and above what could be predicted from initial diagnoses. Results support the role of cognitive factors in the development of depression and PTSD after trauma, and provide preliminary evidence for some specificity in maintaining cognitive mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Date:2012
Deposited On:08 May 2012 13:52
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:48
Publisher:American Psychological Association
ISSN:1942-9681
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027006

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