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Lipopolysaccharide inhibits ghrelin-excited neurons of the arcuate nucleus and reduces food intake via central nitric oxide signaling


Borner, Tito; Pinkernell, Sarah; Lutz, Thomas A; Riediger, Thomas (2012). Lipopolysaccharide inhibits ghrelin-excited neurons of the arcuate nucleus and reduces food intake via central nitric oxide signaling. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 26(6):867-879.

Abstract

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces anorexia and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc). Peripheral administration of the iNOS inhibitor 1400W counteracts the anorectic effects of LPS. Here we investigated the role of central NO signaling in LPS anorexia. In electrophysiological studies we tested whether 1400W counteracts the iNOS-dependent inhibition of Arc neurons triggered by in vivo or in vitro stimulation with LPS. We used the hormone ghrelin as a functional reference stimulus because ghrelin is known to activate orexigenic Arc neurons. Further, we investigated whether in vitro LPS stimulation induces an iNOS-mediated formation of the second messenger cGMP. Since the STAT1 pathway contributes to the regulation of iNOS expression we investigated whether LPS treatment induces STAT1 phosphorylation in the Arc. Finally we tested the effect of intracerebroventricular injection of 1400W on LPS-induced anorexia. Superfusion with 1400W (10(-4)M) increased neuronal activity in 37% of neurons in Arc slices from LPS treated (100μg/kg ip) but not from saline treated rats. Similarly, 1400W excited 45% of Arc neurons after in vitro stimulation with LPS (100ng/ml). In both approaches, a considerable percentage of 1400W sensitive neurons were excited by ghrelin (10(-8)M; 50% and 75%, respectively). In vitro stimulation with LPS induced cGMP formation in the Arc, which was blocked by co-incubation with 1400W. LPS treatment elicited a pSTAT1 response in the Arc of mice. Central 1400W injection (4μg/rat) attenuated LPS-induced anorexia and counteracted the LPS-dependent decrease in respiratory quotient and energy expenditure. In conclusion, the current findings substantiate a role of central iNOS dependent NO formation in LPS-induced effects on eating and energy homeostasis. A pharmacological blockade of NO formation might be a therapeutic approach to ameliorate disease-related anorexia.

Abstract

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces anorexia and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc). Peripheral administration of the iNOS inhibitor 1400W counteracts the anorectic effects of LPS. Here we investigated the role of central NO signaling in LPS anorexia. In electrophysiological studies we tested whether 1400W counteracts the iNOS-dependent inhibition of Arc neurons triggered by in vivo or in vitro stimulation with LPS. We used the hormone ghrelin as a functional reference stimulus because ghrelin is known to activate orexigenic Arc neurons. Further, we investigated whether in vitro LPS stimulation induces an iNOS-mediated formation of the second messenger cGMP. Since the STAT1 pathway contributes to the regulation of iNOS expression we investigated whether LPS treatment induces STAT1 phosphorylation in the Arc. Finally we tested the effect of intracerebroventricular injection of 1400W on LPS-induced anorexia. Superfusion with 1400W (10(-4)M) increased neuronal activity in 37% of neurons in Arc slices from LPS treated (100μg/kg ip) but not from saline treated rats. Similarly, 1400W excited 45% of Arc neurons after in vitro stimulation with LPS (100ng/ml). In both approaches, a considerable percentage of 1400W sensitive neurons were excited by ghrelin (10(-8)M; 50% and 75%, respectively). In vitro stimulation with LPS induced cGMP formation in the Arc, which was blocked by co-incubation with 1400W. LPS treatment elicited a pSTAT1 response in the Arc of mice. Central 1400W injection (4μg/rat) attenuated LPS-induced anorexia and counteracted the LPS-dependent decrease in respiratory quotient and energy expenditure. In conclusion, the current findings substantiate a role of central iNOS dependent NO formation in LPS-induced effects on eating and energy homeostasis. A pharmacological blockade of NO formation might be a therapeutic approach to ameliorate disease-related anorexia.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2012
Deposited On:06 Jul 2012 07:51
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 15:52
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0889-1591
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2012.03.005
PubMed ID:22465682

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