The paper outlines the development of medieval economic history in Switzerland and the research conducted on Swiss regions over the past twenty years. First there is a focus on the institutional embedding of this field of study and the opening up of new source material. The paper then critically reviews the fruits of research, especially on the mixed arable-pastoral economy of the Alps and on the arable lowland economy (Swiss Middleland) as studied at local and regional levels. This is followed by a critical evaluation of scientific results on the economic situation of the nobility, on urban economy, on trade and traffic, especially over the Alpine passes, on loans, banks and finance in the towns, and on the economic role of the Jews and the Lombards. There is a special emphasis on theoretical approaches with regard to source-critical conclusions of newer research on the uses of writing (pragmatic literacy). Furthermore, the impact of the linguistic and culturalistic turns is discussed. The paper concludes by looking ahead, asking what opportunities may be created for the subject by cooperating with economics, a discipline that - especially in the new area of institutional economics - has abandoned the ahistorical modelling of neoclassicism and begun to consider the historical perspective in its theoretical discussions.