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Modulation of cell surface GABA(B) receptors by desensitization, trafficking and regulated degradation


Benke, Dietmar; Zemoura, Khaled; Maier, Patrick J (2012). Modulation of cell surface GABA(B) receptors by desensitization, trafficking and regulated degradation. World Journal of Biological Chemistry, 3(4):61-72.

Abstract

Inhibitory neurotransmission ensures normal brain function by counteracting and integrating excitatory activity. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, and mediates its effects via two classes of receptors: the GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. GABA(A) receptors are heteropentameric GABA-gated chloride channels and responsible for fast inhibitory neurotransmission. GABA(B) receptors are heterodimeric G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) that mediate slow and prolonged inhibitory transmission. The extent of inhibitory neurotransmission is determined by a variety of factors, such as the degree of transmitter release and changes in receptor activity by posttranslational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation), as well as by the number of receptors present in the plasma membrane available for signal transduction. The level of GABA(B) receptors at the cell surface critically depends on the residence time at the cell surface and finally the rates of endocytosis and degradation. In this review we focus primarily on recent advances in the understanding of trafficking mechanisms that determine the expression level of GABA(B) receptors in the plasma membrane, and thereby signaling strength.

Abstract

Inhibitory neurotransmission ensures normal brain function by counteracting and integrating excitatory activity. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, and mediates its effects via two classes of receptors: the GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. GABA(A) receptors are heteropentameric GABA-gated chloride channels and responsible for fast inhibitory neurotransmission. GABA(B) receptors are heterodimeric G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) that mediate slow and prolonged inhibitory transmission. The extent of inhibitory neurotransmission is determined by a variety of factors, such as the degree of transmitter release and changes in receptor activity by posttranslational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation), as well as by the number of receptors present in the plasma membrane available for signal transduction. The level of GABA(B) receptors at the cell surface critically depends on the residence time at the cell surface and finally the rates of endocytosis and degradation. In this review we focus primarily on recent advances in the understanding of trafficking mechanisms that determine the expression level of GABA(B) receptors in the plasma membrane, and thereby signaling strength.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:26 April 2012
Deposited On:19 Jul 2012 09:13
Last Modified:14 Aug 2017 17:21
Publisher:Beijing Baishideng BioMed Scientific Co.
ISSN:1949-8454
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.4331/wjbc.v3.i4.61
PubMed ID:22558486

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