This is a contribution to the serious „Current Clinical Oncology“ which addresses the pathogenesis and multimodal clinical therapy of primary central nervous system tumors. The authors approached the topic by separating the field into general principles (part 1), gliomas (part 2) and other tumor types (part 3). It is a multi-author book assembled by three experts in the field of neurological oncology who are involved in various of the most interesting and innovative experimental trial initiatives in primary central nervous system tumors. This setup defines the major strength as well as the possible weakness of this endeavour. On one hand, as far as this is possible in a text book, chapters are truly up-to-date: the pertinent scientific literature up to 2010 is covered. The authors cover the most recent developments in experimental and clinical science in a disease-specific manner. On the other hand, multiple author books have the inherent problem of heterogeneous setup and focus of content by chapter. The perspective is comprehensive and that of the clinical neuro-oncologist; accordingly, the book may be most suitable for this audience. It does not provide insight or updates on the technical aspects of neurosurgery or radiation oncology, but may be very helpful for translational scientists, too, who wish to understand where clinical neuro-oncology is moving. Altogether, this textbook is a rich source of knowledge in a highly moving field and recommended for all medical professionals interested in brain tumors who enjoy reading systematic topical reviews on subjects, some of which are otherwise seldom the subject of review articles.